Advisers of Color (UC) research sources

Tara Young, College Adviser is conducting the second UC-wide convenience-sample survey on advisors of color starting Feb 2017.  

Its 2 goals:  a) do advisers of color help the retention of students​/improve the student experience?, and b) to understand any distinctions about advisers of color. The first survey was conducted in Jan 2016.  

Presentations:

UC Academic Advising Conference-Santa Barbara, May 2016 
UC Berkeley Stay Day June 2016
UC Davis Academic Adviser Professional Development committee workshop (3 hr version), Nov 2016
UC Academic Advising Conference-Berkeley, May 2017 

Articles:
UC Berkeley Wisdom Cafe article released Oct 2016 
Berkeley Blog, Oct 2016

TOPIC

How are we doing as advisers/people of color in higher ed? Spring boarding from one of the first in-depth studies to focus on minorities who have made it to the top, Breaking Through: The Making of Minority Executives in Corporate America (by David Thomas and John Gabarro) examines the crucial connection between corporate culture and the advancement of people of color. American colleges may tout their equal opportunity initiatives, but with many executive-level positions held by white males, most of these programs clearly fall far short of their goals when it comes to diversifying upper management. What can we tell each other to lift each other up? How do we keep ourselves going to support our students?  What can we learn from these success stories? Our structure will be small group discussions, but everyone is expected to share wisdom.

**Many thanks to all who support this work...especially Roseanne Fong and Jane Lee.

Sources and Quotables

1. Advising is a process of giving students guidance, support, and encouragement. (Noel-Levitz, 1997, p. 3)

2. Academic advisors are crucial in the establishment of a campus climate that creates safe space for our students (Lantta, 2008).

3. Improving first-year retention and performance is the first step to raising graduation rates and improving time-to-degree. UC research has shown that performance in the first year is critical – undergraduate students who go on academic probation in their first year are less likely to graduate. Advising plays an important role in helping new undergraduate students positively transition to their UC academic careers and persist in college. Research on student retention has consistently demonstrated that contact with advisors has a positive influence on student persistence, including for students with a lower likelihood of completing a degree, such as first- generation students and students from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds (Swecker, Fifolt & Searby, 2013; King & Kerr, 2005).

4. From http://diversity.berkeley.edu/staff/2015risingtogether:
At UC Berkeley, the overall population of staff of color has remained fairly flat over the past 10 years. Upon close examination of the population of staff of color at middle and senior managements levels, the numbers are even lower. In addition, according to the latest demographic information from HR, significant numbers of staff, particularly managers, are in the Traditionals (born before 1946) and Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964) generations, and they are likely to retire in the next 5-10 years. With no established succession planning and career/professional development in place, and in light of the low numbers of staff of color in middle and senior management levels, the prospects for advancement of staff of color are limited.

5. UC CLIMATE REPORTS

UC Berkeley Campus Climate report - March 2014

campusclimate.ucop.edu/_common/files/pdf-climate/ucb-full-report.pdf

UC Davis Campus climate report from 2014: pages 69-72

http://occr.ucdavis.edu/%5C/campus_climate_survey/index.html

6.  From The Center for Community College Student Engagement: Aspirations to Achievement, Men of Color and Community Colleges https://www.ccsse.org/docs/MoC_Special_Report.pdf
Across all groups—Black males, Latinos, and White males—students frequently talk about the value of diversity on campus, observing that having more faculty and staff who are people of color would be a good thing. Some students, moreover, affirm the general importance of diversity campus-wide, even while insisting that in any particular class, the most important characteristic of the instructor is not race, but whether that person holds high expectations, believes the students can achieve them, and knows how to teach so they will do so.

7. References (NACADA 2015, Yuki Burton, Julian Ledesma)

Butler, J. E. (2013). Two steps forward, one step backward: Must this be the future of diversity? Liberal Education, 99 (3). Retrieved from http://www.aacu.org/ liberaleducation/le-su13/butler.cfm Carnevale, A. P., & Strohl, J. (2013).

Separate and unequal: How higher education reinforces intergenerational reproduction of white privilege . Washington, DC: Georgetown Public Policy Institute, Center on Education and the Workforce. Harper, S.R., & Associates. (2014).

Succeeding in the city: A report from the New York City Black and Latino Male High School Achievement Study . Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education. National Education Association. (n.d.).

Why cultural competence? Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/home/39783.htm Steele, C. M. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi: How stereotypes affect us and what we can do. New York, NY: W.W. Norton 2.

8. Effects of College Transition and Perceptions of the Campus Racial Climate on Latino College Students' Sense of Belonging Sylvia Hurtado and Deborah Faye Carter Sociology of Education Vol. 70, No. 4 (Oct., 1997), pp. 324-345, Published by: American Sociological Association
More research is also needed to investigate student' views of their membership in less formal peer groups that may increase retention. However, a low sense of belonging does not enhance a student college experience and could explain why some college graduates form specific racial-ethnic groups are less satisfied with their college experience (Bennett & Okinaka 1990). The outcomes of students' sense of belonging may have more immediate effects on student behaviors, such as the quality of social interactions, students' selection of academic programs and their use of support services.

https://www.engr.psu.edu/awe/ARPAbstracts/CommunityCollege/ARP_WomenofCo... 
Researchers find that the education of all students is enhanced by interactions with diverse populations, and those experienced in diverse situations are better prepared to work with multicultural populations on the global stage (Bonous Hammarth, 2000; Hurtado, Cabrera, Lin, Arellano, & Espinosa, 2008; Spinosa, Sharkness, Pryor, & Liu, 2008).

9.  FACULTY

http://www.nea.org/assets/img/PubAlmanac/ALM_09_08.pdf
Many researchers call for faculty development programs and for student retention programs, especially for first-year students. fewer scholars perceive the considerable influence of staff members on retention. To reiterate: student retention and faculty development programs have roles to play, if they address campus culture, climate, assumptions, and norms. But these programs can only affect part of a student's academic and social experiences. Staff professional development programs should complement these initiatives since the daily interactions students and staff members may substantially influence student enthusiasm—and student retention.

(In)validation in the Minority: The Experiences of Latino  Student Enrolled in an HBCU by TARYN OZUNA ALLEN. The Journal of Higher Education, Vol 87, No. 4,  2016
First, the current study suggests that most Latino students experinced on-campus academic valdation through relationships with their faculty member.  Neverthelss, some students were unable to benefit from faculty support becasue of their hectic schedules. 

https://www.aaup.org/NR/rdonlyres/97003B7B-055F-4318-B14A-5336321FB742/0... -page 4

Perhaps the most striking and telling survey finding is that faculty members strongly believe that racially and ethnically diverse classrooms enrich the educational experience of white students.

 

Colorblind mentoring? Exploring white faculty mentoring of students of color. By McCoy, Dorian L.; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle; Luedke, Courtney L. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, Vol 8(4), Dec 2015, 225-242.
In this critical multisite case study we examined the concept of colorblind mentoring. Using Bonilla-Silva's Colorblind Racism Frames, we sought to understand White faculty members' perspectives on their mentoring of Students of Color. The findings revealed that White faculty members often engage with students from a "colorblind perspective." Their use of race-neutral, colorblind language (avoiding racial terms but implying them) allowed White faculty members to describe their students as academically inferior, less prepared, and less interested in pursuing research and graduate studies while potentially ignoring structural causes. Faculty perceptions of students may influence the way Students of Color perceive their academic abilities and potential to achieve success in STEM disciplines and in graduate education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)



10. Role models, family members, mentors, and institutional resources that help students navigate higher education and provide opportunities that contribute to the professional development of students in STEM are considered social capital (Yosso, 2005). Retention programs for women of color after they have been successfully recruited for transfer into STEM at the university level are the logical next step to diversifying STEM fields. These programs have been designed to meet the challenges that students face once they arrive at a university, including academic support, mentoring, undergraduate research experience, financial assistance, and community building, both on campus and off. Especially important for underrepresented communities are efforts that integrate parents and family networks (Auerbach, 2004; Hurtado, Carter, & Spuler, 1996; Hurtado, Han, et al., 2007). Perceptions of racism and sexism have led students of color to consider switching out of science disciplines or leaving school altogether (Goodman, et al., 2002; Russell & Atwater, 2005; Sands, 1993; Solorzano, Ceja, & Yosso, 2000; Varma, 2006). Hurtado, Carter, and Spuler (1996) found that a perceived racist environment negatively affected the integration of students of color at universities. Efforts to ameliorate these experiences are crucial for students of color to succeed in higher education (Arbona & Nora, 2007; Heller & Martin, 1994; Reyes, in press; Tate & Linn, 2005; Wawrzynski & Sedlacek, 2003), such as mentoring, professional or student affinity-group involvement or providing a sounding board and safe space or "counterspace" for gatherings, academic support, and discussion of strategies for dealing with experiences of perceived racist, sexist or other discriminatory experiences on campus (Solorzano, Ceja, et al., 2000). Yet for other students of color, racist or sexist experiences provide the motivation and impetus to prove themselves capable of succeeding in higher education (Sands, 1993). Jennie R. Patrick, a chemical engineer, described her academic experiences as a world sometimes "filled with hate, abuse, unfairness, and discrimination," where she "made a commitment to succeed" (Warren, 1999, p. 220). Ornelas and Solorzano (2004, p. 238) reported that despite barriers to success, "a strong sense 'to prove them (society) wrong'" motivated "a sense of responsibility to become role models to their younger sibling or their children, and a commitment to succeed" from Latina and Latino transfer students in California.

American Council on Education

"Students are more likely to persist in STEM when they experience a combination of 1) social-emotional mentoring functions, such as encouragement and role modeling, and 2) instructional mentoring functions, including academic support, college navigation, and career coaching."
Issues: isolation, financial aid, parental pressure, acad prep, how colleges work

American society is diverse whether in terms of gender identities, race/ethnicity, socio-economic class, national origins, religion, or political views. Students are better equipped for life in a pluralistic society when they have an understanding and appreciation of the histories, cultures, and backgrounds of people from a variety of backgrounds (Schneider 2012). Thus among the social skills research universities teach are those related to interaction with diverse others.

Social network development is the social science term for making friends and contacts. The evidence is overwhelming that many opportunities in life --from meeting potential mates to finding jobs and advancing in a career –are mediated through social networks (Granovetter 1985). The capacity to make friends is fundamental to the development of social networks, as well as, of course, being a pleasure and value in its own right.

Rouse, Janelle Ellis, Ph.D. Social Justice Development: Creating Social Change Agents in Academic Systems. (2011)
The model consists of three phases: critical awareness, transformation and action. An additional stage— sustained involvement—is included between the critical awareness and transformation phase to represent the importance of continued growth and development of critical encounters/explorations important to the critical transformation process.

http://www.cshe.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/shared/publications/doc...
Related to the sense of belonging concept is a construct titled mattering.  Sociologists Rosenberg and McCullough (1981) were among the first to label and operationalize the mattering construct:  “it is fair to conclude that mattering is a motive; the feeling  that  others  depend  on  us,  are  interested  in  us,  are  concerned  with  our  fate,  or  experience  us  as  an  ego-extension exercises  a  powerful  influence  on  our  actions”  (p.  165).    Components  that  serve  as  a  foundation  of  mattering include:  attention,  importance,  ego-extension,  and  dependence.    Developmental  psychologists,  including  Josselson  (1998),  tied mattering  to  identity  development,  including  relational  identity  aspects  (Marshall,  Liu,  Wu,  Berzonsky,  & Adams,  2010; Tovar, Simon, & Lee, 2009) from 

https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/03/03/students-demand-more-mino....

11. STAFF

http://www.wwu.edu/eoo/docs/Best%20Practices_Recruiting%20and%20Retainin... - page 7

The term cluster hiring is used in two ways. The first describes the practice of hiring a group of people at all levels that are well versed in more than one area and can float between disciplines. The advantage of this is to have a cohort of flexible and dynamic minority scholars well suited to the new challenges facing them in an ever changing environment.

The second method aims at hiring more than one person of color at a time, minimizing feelings of isolationism and overload. 

Aguirre, A. (2000). Women and minority faculty in the academic workplace: Recruitment, retention,and academic culture. Eric Clearinghouse on Higher Education. Document HE 033 595, 4 page